The standard treatment for rectal cancer.

Earlier investigations have shown that the radiotherapy and chemotherapy, either before or after the operation, reduce the local recurrence of cancer. However, a costly treatment and radiation therapy with an elevated risk with an increased risk of other permanent complications, such as impaired bowel function, incontinence and sexual dysfunction. For this reason, for radiotherapy patients have a high risk of local recurrence, such as those to be aligned with the participation of the circumferential resection margin. Post-operative patients review, Professor Robert Steele and his team led the Medical Research Council CR07 and the National Cancer Institute of Canada to get C016 trial.

After three years of complete knowledge that in the preoperative radiotherapy group, 4 % of patients had local recurrence of cancer as compared 10.6 % had in the postoperative group. After three years, the probability of disease-free survival of 77.5 % in the preoperative radiotherapy patients and by 72 % in the post-operative patients. The overall survival rate does not vary significantly among the groups .A study of publication of to the 15 Planned December edition to the American Chemical Society journal, Environmental Science and Technology indicates in that first time, toxic metals emitted out automotive catalytic converters have was detected in the urban air in the U.S. The research was made from Swedish in co with researchers from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.

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