BA Hons How did your research into breastfeeding and personality originate?

Breastfeeding and personality: an interview with Dr Amy Brown By April Cashin-Garbutt Interview conducted, BA Hons How did your research into breastfeeding and personality originate? I'm interested in the elements that are associated with breastfeeding duration, not really much what encourages mums to breastfeed to begin with but how we may support those mums who wish to breastfeed to breast feed for longer. In the united kingdom we've got quite a nagging problem with breastfeeding. The government recommends that females should breastfeed for half a year, just breast milk exclusively, and then for up to a yr and beyond what is it used for click here . But a number of ladies struggle in the UK. About 80 percent initiate breastfeeding but that drops off actually quickly. By about six weeks only about 50 percent of women remain breastfeeding. The problem is that most of those who halted didn't want to avoid. It wasn't because it was their personal choice that they produced, it had been because they found it too difficult or they couldn't obtain the right support. That's what I'm really interested in, is how we can kind of work with that band of women to enable them to breastfeed for longer. We're trying to understand what their complications are. There's been a lot of research done about how exactly if women are well informed they're more likely to breastfeed, but there's nothing that's been done previously looking in their actual personality. That which was previously known about how personality can impact the inclination to initiate and continue steadily to breastfeed? Very, very little. It's understood that women who feel more anxious and worried about breastfeeding and are anxious regarding whether their baby is getting a sufficient amount of milk or they're feeding too frequently, can struggle with breastfeeding and may stop because method seems just like the easy solution because you can see how much the baby is getting and you know they've had their milk, you can measure it. That looked more at anxiety specifically with regards to feeding However. There was nothing actually looking at personality, which talks about anxiety as an over-all, wider personality trait and other personality traits generally then. It stemmed from that but it was pretty unique in what it looked at. What precisely did your research involve? It was part of a wider research looking at the factors associated with breastfeeding: mother's experiences, as to why they thought we would breastfeed, as to why they stopped, how confident they felt, and a measurement of their personality type then. 602 mothers finished a questionnaire on how lengthy they breastfed and their experiences. Within that I possibly could consider the relationship between, not merely personality and breastfeeding, but their experiences aswell. What did your quest find? How can you think these results can be explained? Firstly, personality was associated with breastfeeding. That was the initial finding. Particularly, women who were extroverted, rather than being introverted, were more likely to start breastfeeding and they breastfed for longer. Women who were less anxious were likely to start also. What I then started looking at was: the facts about those two character traits, of anxiety and introversion, that make it so hard for ladies to breastfeed? What's going on? So I viewed the links between their thoughts and attitudes towards breastfeeding, their connection with breastfeeding, any nagging complications they had, any interactions they had with other people, and their cultural support. I looked at all the factors that are going throughout them as that’s so essential in affecting breastfeeding knowledge. What it demonstrated was that, in particular, it seemed that introverted women felt differently and had different encounters than extroverted women. Specifically, they didn't like feeding in front of other people. These were very nervous or embarrassed about it. That makes it hard to breastfeed because breastfeed infants feed really frequently actually, so if you don’t want to sit inside your home all day, you're probably going to have to feed them in a cafe somewhere or feed them in somebody else's house. It's very hard not to feed before other people. Potentially, this reluctance or shyness to feed in front of others may be stopping mums breastfeeding since it would be convenient for them to use a bottle. The introverts also felt a complete large amount of pressure from other people to stop breastfeeding. Their mum, or their mother-in-law, or their partner was telling them to avoid and they felt a lot of pressure from their website. That can happen for many reasons. Maybe the paternalfather wants to get involved with feeding, or the mom or the mother-in-law wants to do the same thing, maybe they would like to take the baby overnight to give the parents a break or to get them for the day. That's very hard if you're breastfeeding because you need to be able to feed the infant, unless you can express breastmilk, and not everyone wants to do that or will get it difficult. The introverts seemed suffering from that pressure particularly. Probably they're a little bit shyer and quieter if they don't want to say, ‘No,’ and become so assertive maybe. With the stress and anxiety link, mums who were more anxious stated that they found breastfeeding more difficult and they couldn't seem to obtain the support that they needed. Now, I don't really see any type of physical reason why getting anxious would quit you breastfeeding, although very high degrees of anxiety and stress might reduce milk supply, but maybe if you're very worried about it, then formula might seem like the solution. Formula can sort of seem like the response to any nagging problems some times because, again you can observe how much the baby is drinking or another person can feed the infant which can reduce stress about how much milk the baby is getting. So overall breastfeeding was associated with personality but it was more that personality was linked to the experience of breastfeeding which actually affected whether they could actually or not really or felt happy or confident doing it. Women who feel more confident, happy, and knowledgeable are going to breastfeed a complete many more easily. They feel backed. It's if they don't have the support plus they get worried that it appears very difficult really. I think it's just the knowledge really, but personality appeared to be linked to experience. What impact do you think this research will have on the support and education available to mothers? How do you think support for more anxious and introverted mothers can be improved? I believe it's really important to think about the practical message from these findings that mums who have are more introverted or are more anxious really want to breastfeed but they find it a lot more difficult to do than well informed women. Related StoriesBreastfeeding connected with lower risk of developing hormone-receptor unfavorable breasts cancerStudy analyzes pediatric ED visits attributed to injuries because of legal interventionsBreastfeeding may not protect against allergies I believe support really needs to come antenatally when they're pregnant and postnatally as well. I think we have antenatal teaching about breastfeeding but frequently it targets: this is how you breastfeed your child. We inform mums: breastfeeding is really good for your child. But we don't always consider: how will you breastfeed? What issues might you face? What exactly are you a bit concerned about? I think speaking with mums in antenatal classes about: what exactly are they worried about; what challenges do you think you may face? And working with them on strategies to overcome that then. For example, if they're really worried about feeding in public they are able to think about techniques they might overcome that then, perhaps going for a friend with them or their partner thus they don't feel so embarrassed on their own. Asking various other mums about where is fairly breastfeeding friendly? Where could I go and have a espresso and quite feed my baby happily?’ Rather they try to support the mom in another way, by cooking a supper or talking the baby out for a walk etc. Postnatally, I think it's important the mums obtain put in touch with the right support aswell because there are breastfeeding support providers out there. The NHS runs groups and there are charities that run helplines for if a question has been got by a mum. They also run drop-in treatment centers and sessions with females who’ve themselves breastfed. Including the Association of Breastfeeding Mothers is one of these. A helpline is run by them plus they have peer organizations. Do you have plans to study the result of any other areas of character on breastfeeding prices? I believe the important thing right now is taking these results and looking at how we might help moms with them, so I'm hoping to sort of think about how this could be applied to antenatal teaching or postnatal support. So working in to some sort of intervention or support bundle that can help mums to have them thinking about breastfeeding and overcoming a few of the problems. Is it vital that you study the personalities of the partners of mothers? I'm writing in a paper right now just, actually, looking at dad's encounters of breastfeeding. The dads are therefore important in helping the mum and their attitude concerning whether they wish the mum to breastfeed or not is critical because, if they're really supportive, she'll probably feel happier and well informed, and perhaps he may support her by caring for her and cooking dinner or just being there on her behalf if she's feeding in public and feeling a bit embarrassed. If he doesn't really understand breastfeeding or isn't supportive of it then you can certainly see how she may end up stopping breastfeeding if he says things such as, ‘it really is my baby too, I would like to provide him a bottle.’ This might pressurize her to bottle feed. You could transfer the same personality characteristics to dads for the reason that quickly, if they're quite introverted, they may get embarrassed by their partner breastfeeding in public areas. They might be sitting there thinking, ‘Oh, what's she doing? I feel embarrassed and awkward concerning this.’ Or if they're very anxious, they may be worried that the infant isn’t getting enough milk, and in the event that the mum's surrounded by somebody who is worried and anxious and a little bit embarrassed, then, even if she's not herself, she might be more likely to stop breastfeeding. Where can visitors find more info? It's in the Journal of the Advanced Nursing: One of the really key places mums can go is definitely to breastfeeding support organizations. The NHS will operate them in all areas, but you also have the groupings run by charities. They are work by people who have very competent knowledge about breastfeeding but also peer supporters who are women who’ve recently breastfed a child themselves therefore they know very well what it's like. They have concepts about how exactly you can get over different challenges. So if females want for more information, I recommend each goes along to their local breastfeeding support group. They'll welcome women that are pregnant along; you don't need to already have had your child. Speak to one of the charity helplines, like the Association of Breastfeeding Moms. There's the breastfeeding network also. They're all services that women can ring if they've got questions or problems. About Dr Amy Dark brown Dr. Amy Brown is certainly a Senior Lecturer in Public Health and Policy Research at Swansea University. Her study explores the importance of nutrition during the first yr of existence upon longer-term child fat and consuming patterns. She is especially thinking about the factors that impact whether infants are breasts or formula fed so when and how they are presented to solid foods. Specifically her work examines how complex mental, societal and cultural factors can affect maternal experiences at this time. Her long-term goal is to build up interventions to support new moms to feel confident, supported and informed within their choices.

Breasts tumor markers – are they useful? Breast cancer may be the most common type of cancers in women and the next leading cause of malignancy deaths in American women. In ’09 2009, approximately 194,280 patients are estimated to be identified as having invasive breast cancer, and 62,280 with carcinoma in situ. Around 40,610 will die of this disease. For a female of standard risk, the life time incidence of breast cancers can be one in eight. Serum tumor markers for breast cancer used in the clinic include CA 15-3, CEA , and CA 27-29. All possess low specificity and sensitivity, and not helpful in detecting early breast cancer thus. CA 15-3 levels are increased in approximately 5-30 percent of sufferers with stage 1 disease, 15-50 percent with stage 2, 60-70 percent with stage 3, and 65-90 percent with stage 4. CA 15-3 measurements are also elevated in 15-20 percent of females with benign breast conditions, 50-60 percent with liver disease, 20-70 percent pulmonary malignancies, 15-60 percent of gastrointestinal/colonic malignancies, and 40-60 percent of ovarian cancer situations. CEA is more frequent in colorectal cancers, whereas CA 27-29 is more specific for breast malignancy. These three tumor markers have got, however, been validated for monitoring treatment in patients with advanced disease, especially if the cancer cannot be evaluated with standard imaging. The American Society of Clinical Oncology recommends the use of CEA, CA 15-3 and CA 27-29 just in metastatic configurations, whereas the European Group on Tumor Markers recommends their use in disease surveillance generally. With the existing technology, circulating tumor cells have been found in very few instances of early stage breasts cancer. Circulating tumor cells detected in both localized and metastatic breast malignancy patients have been connected with worse outcome. Circulating tumor cells may also predict response to therapy. There is a lot ongoing research to research new biomarkers for early detection of breast malignancy. Blood-based markers consist of cells, DNA, RNA, peptides, sugars, and autoantibodies. Breast-structured markers such as nipple/ductal liquid and breast fine needle aspiration likewise incorporate cells, DNA, RNA, proteins, sugars, and autoantibodies. In the future, chances are that a combination approach to measure concurrently multiple markers would be most effective in detecting early breast cancer. Ideally, such a biomarker panel should be able to detect breast tumor in asymptomatic patients, and improve the accuracy of screening mammograms. A trusted biomarker signature may also signify new breasts cancer, even in the establishing of normal mammogram and physical evaluation, and would indicate more intensive diagnostic workup and/or preventive treatment further.

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